18/9/2007 · The Selection of Boilers with a Consideration of the Factors Determining such Selection 277 Operation and Care of Boilers 291 Brickwork Boiler Settings 302 Boiler Room Piping 308 Flow of Steam through Pipes and Orifices 317 Heat Transfer 323 INDEX 331
Solids in the steam leaving a boiler can deposit in the superheater and turbines, causing costly damage. For this reason, close control of steam purity is critical. Steam purity refers to the amount of solid, liquid, or vaporous contamination in the steam. High-purity steam contains very little contamination.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF ILLUSTRATIVE EMBODIMENTS Referring to FIG. 1, it will be seen that the economizer unit 10 embodying the invention is mounted on a conventional steam boiler B with a flue gas duct D and a feedwater connection FC so that the feedwater passes through a feedwater regulator valve RV into boiler B.
In the steam boiler, a condensation rate of the boiler water is set so that the concentration of the scale preventive agent in the boiler water is 40 mg EDTA/L or less. Boiler water is heated in a steam boiler while feed water, which has a hardness of 5 mg CaCO 3 /L or less and is used as the boiler water, is supplied to the steam boiler.
Selection of a steam boiler for a Soda Ash production plant is a crucial and almost irretrievable decision for the p lant management. Therefore, there exists a need for a systematic a nd efficient
te steam-heated air heater is used for preheating of h combustion air before boiler inlet. this air heater can be arranged upstream of a flue gas-heated regenerative air
Efficiency of boiler feed-water pump: 70% h. Power of auxiliaries for boiler feed-water pump: 3.5% of generator output power i. Efficiency of boiler: 89%. The net thermal efficiency of a plant also varies according to the turbine type in addition to the above steam conditions.
The employment of steel for the tubes in steam-wagon and tractor boilers is now almost universal, and its recent adoption by many railway companies has to be recorded; a still-larger number of railway engineers remains faithful to the use of brass tubes, in spite of
the boiler system itself to address specific problems. An important consideration for inspectors is that feedwater conditioning should be a key part of the boiler program at facilities with water-quality challenges, because it can significantly reduce, or even additives.
Kemi-tech only offers environmentally friendly boiler protection programs. These programs include the use of high-tech polymers, efficient oxygen scavengers, and sludge dispersing agents. Using these will make the sludge discharge from the boiler when performing the
In some cases, anti-foaming agents are blended into the treatment formulation to increase steam purity by minimizing the tendency of the boiler to foam and carry over boiler solids with the steam. In many low pressure boiler plants where most of the steam is used for space heating, a high percentage of returned condensate is available for recycle as boiler feedwater.
For steam boilers, a small overpressure is required, usually 3% or 5%. For most other applications, 10% overpressure is required, but according to API 520, for special applications such as fire protection, larger valves with overpressures of 20% are allowed.
When steam and chilled water lines cannot be separated by ten (10) feet or more and they must run parallel for a distance of more than 50 feet, then consideration shall be given to a combined walk-through utility corridor, where the steam and chilled water
WATER-TUBE VERSUS FIRE-TUBE BOILERS. Safety —The most important requirement of a steam boiler is that it shall be safe in so far as danger from explosion is concerned. If the energy in a large shell boiler under pressure is considered, the thought of the destruction possible in the case of
They can also be used to dissolve deposits containing copper oxides by the injection of an oxidizing agent through the boiler circuits. In superheaters and the water-steam circuits of once-through supercritical boilers, magnetite and complex scales may be removed by inhibited hydroxyacetic and formic acid, inhibited EDTA, or inhibited ammoniated citrate.
Heat lost by hot gases = V s ( t 1 − t 2) MJs − 1, where V = m 3 gas/sec, s = specific heat (volume basis). Heat absorbed by water = 0.95 Vs ( t1 − t2 )MJ s −1, t1 and t2 = temperature of hot gases before and after the W.H. boiler, °C. Total heat as steam = sensible heat in feed water + heat absorbed by water in boiler.
boiler conducted by manufacturer or agent who is authorized by the manufacturer in order to maintain performance of the boiler. Boiler efficiency Boiler efficiency is the percentage of heat quantity used to generate steam against total heat quantityfuel.
one boiler causes a drop in steam header pressure, which produces "boiler swell" in the untripped boilers. These effects will shut down all the untripped boilers through drum level high protection. The variables that affect the boiler swell are the rate